Where prey is abundant, a territory area may be as small as 20 square km (8 square miles), but if game is sparse, it may cover up to 400 square km.  Up to 80% of lion cubs will die before the age of two.  Stars of movies and characters in books, lions are at the top of the food chain.  Accounts of a few individuals that were larger than average exist from Africa and India. I mean just the thought of a 5 year old separated from his family for 25 years is bad enough, add in the fact that he was lost in India, a country of over a billion people and was the child of an uneducated poor single mother and you are looking at a very stressful situation. Lions proclaim their territory by roaring and by scent marking. Scavenging lions keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, which indicate the death or distress of an animal.
 In 2015, an adult male lion and a female lion were sighted in Ghana's Mole National Park. I have to go back  Lions occur in savannah grasslands with scattered acacia trees, which serve as shade. , When one or more new males oust the previous males associated with a pride, the victors often kill any existing young cubs, perhaps because females do not become fertile and receptive until their cubs mature or die. Narasimha, the man-lion, is one of ten avatars of the Hindu god Vishnu. Groups of females, for example, hunt more effectively and are better able to defend cubs against infanticidal males and their hunting territory against other females.  Estimates of the African lion population range between 16,500 and 47,000 living in the wild in 2002–2004. When they return to the pride, they can nurse from any adult lioness in the pride, not just their own mother. For Saroo to find an obscure village in India, using just his childhood memories and Google Earth, is a thrilling idea, but it's not well portrayed in the movie. Their distinctive roar is generally delivered in the evening before a night’s hunting and again before getting up at dawn. Hagenbeck designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo; although his designs were popular, the use of bars and caged enclosures prevailed in many zoos until the 1960s.
It has been listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996 because populations in African countries have declined by about 43% since the early 1990s.  Interactions between prides and nomads tend to be hostile, although pride females in estrus allow nomadic males to approach them. The mane’s function is to make the male look more impressive to females and more intimidating to rival males. Cardboard boxes, palm fronds, and feed sacks make great toys, too.  The hunter who killed the lions wrote a book detailing the animals' predatory behaviour; they were larger than normal and lacked manes, and one seemed to suffer from tooth decay. But as a friend points out, there are many water towers in India near railway stations. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. , A population occurs in Cameroon's Waza National Park, where between approximately 14 and 21 animals persisted as of 2009. Males and females fiercely defend against any outside lions that attempt to join their pride.  Males associated with a pride tend to stay on the fringes, patrolling their territory. If prey is abundant, both sexes typically spend 21 to 22 hours a day resting, sleeping, or sitting and hunt for only 2 or 3 hours a day. We began with a roar! Hunting as a group means there is a better chance that the lions have food when they need it, and it is less likely that they will get injured while hunting.
 Lions are frequently mentioned in the Bible; notably in the Book of Daniel in which the eponymous hero refuses to worship King Darius and is forced to sleep in the lions' den where he is miraculously unharmed (Dan 6). Founded in 1878, Lion Brand Yarn Company is the oldest producer of knitting and craft yarn in the United States.  It was present in the Caucasus until the 10th century. A mother and daughter may live together for life. Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, meowing and roaring. WOW!  The original male white lion from Timbavati in South Africa was also maneless.
The color, size, and abundance of the mane all vary among individuals and with age. They also scavenge or steal prey from leopards, cheetahs, hyenas, or wild dogs, even eating food that has spoiled.
Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.  Between the mid-18th and mid-20th centuries, 26 lion specimens were described and proposed as subspecies, of which 11 were recognised as valid in 2005. A full-grown male is about 1.8–2.1 metres (6–7 feet) long, excluding the 1-metre tail; he stands about 1.2 metres high at the shoulder and weighs 170–230 kg (370–500 pounds). A male lion can eat about a quarter of his body weight (as much as about 140 pounds or 63 kilograms) in a single meal. , The last refuge of the Asiatic lion population is the 1,412 km2 (545 sq mi) Gir National Park and surrounding areas in the region of Saurashtra or Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat State, India. , The male lion's mane is the most recognisable feature of the species.
, The lion's repertoire of vocalisations is large; variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication. A whole genome-wide sequence of lion samples showed that samples from West Africa shared alleles with samples from Southern Africa, and samples from Central Africa shared alleles with samples from Asia. One Is Likely a Female", "Examining the Extinction of the Barbary Lion and Its Implications for Felid Conservation", "The past and present distribution of the lion in southeastern Asia", "Lion population dynamics: do nomadic males matter?  The generic name Panthera is traceable to the classical Latin word 'panthēra' and the ancient Greek word πάνθηρ 'panther'. Cultural depictions of lions were prominent in the Upper Paleolithic period; carvings and paintings from the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 17,000 years ago, and depictions have occurred in virtually all ancient and medieval cultures that coincided with the lion's former and current ranges.  The ultimate proof of a tamer's dominance and control over a lion is demonstrated by the placing of the tamer's head in the lion's mouth.  Coalitions of males hold territory for a longer time than single lions. The film took me back to my roots and streets where I grew up. Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey. , Young lions first display stalking behaviour at around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old and begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two. They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger. A lion pride consists of a few adult males, related females and cubs.
 Adult forms of several species of the tapeworm genus Taenia have been isolated from lion intestines, having been ingested as larvae in antelope meat. And the Brierleys' second adopted son, also an Indian orphan, is even more traumatised, although we never find out what his story is.  Lions often inflict serious injuries on members of other prides they encounter in territorial disputes or members of the home pride when fighting at a kill.  Females form the stable social unit in a pride and do not tolerate outside females. Sometimes the sub-adult males form bachelor groups and run together until they are big enough to start challenging older males in an attempt to take over a pride.
, Other lion subspecies or sister species to the modern lion existed in prehistoric times:, Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from all Felidae species indicate that their evolutionary radiation began in Asia in the Miocene around 14.45 to 8.38 million years ago to 16.76 to 6.46 million years ago.  A lioness-headed ivory carving found in Vogelherd cave in the Swabian Alb, southwest Germany, is dubbed Löwenmensch (lion-human) in German.  Increased testosterone may be the cause of maned lionesses reported in northern Botswana. They spend an average of two hours a day walking and fifty minutes eating.  , In the Republic of the Congo, Odzala-Kokoua National Park was considered a lion stronghold in the 1990s.  The lion is also symbolic for the Sinhalese people; the term derived from the Sanskrit Sinhala, meaning "of lions" while a sword-wielding lion is the central figure on the national flag of Sri Lanka. , The male lion's mane is the most recognisable feature of the species. Bad I know, but I can't watch a film with subtitles, it's a fault, but there you go, i fiddle with my phone or tablet etc, but the story was such that I didn't take my eyes off it. Historically, they lived across much of Europe, Asia, and Africa, but now they are mainly found in parts of Africa south of the Sahara. Couldn't he have brainstormed with his Indian student friends in Melbourne? My father made a very difficult journey to come and get me and we stayed a month in India before returning to Italy.  Leopards are able to take refuge in trees; lionesses, however, occasionally attempt to retrieve leopard kills from trees.  Lions defend their kills from scavengers such as vultures and hyenas. It was truly mind blowing and makes you appreciate how lucky you are to have whatever it is you have In a seriously humbling way. In some lions the mane and fringe are very dark, almost black, giving the cat a majestic appearance. An isolated population of about 650 Asiatic lions constitute a slightly smaller race that lives under strict protection in India’s Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary. Ice Age Lion Man is world's earliest figurative sculpture.  His two sisters, born in 1986, also reached the age of 22.  In the late 20th century, larger, more natural enclosures and the use of wire mesh or laminated glass instead of lowered dens allowed visitors to come closer than ever to the animals; some attractions such as the Cat Forest/Lion Overlook of Oklahoma City Zoological Park placed the den on ground level, higher than visitors.
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